Fipronil in Australia

Guide to Fipronil in Australia

About Fipronil Uses, Risks and Alerternatives

Fipronil is a chemical used as an insecticide and pesticide in Australia and around the world. It’s effective at killing pests, like insects, termites, and fleas. There are concerns about potential risks to human health and the environment. This guide explains fipronil’s chemical properties, uses, impacts and regulation. Additionally, we’ll explore alternatives to fipronil and provide tips for reducing exposure to this chemical.

Definition of Fipronil

Fipronil belongs to the phenylpyrazole class of chemicals, disrupting the central nervous system of insects leading to paralysis and death. It can be highly toxic to some pests and offers long residual activity against others.

Current Uses

In agriculture, forestry and urban pest control settings it’s used to manage a range of insects such as ants, termites, fleas etc. It’s also active ingredient in products designed to control fleas and ticks on pets such as spot-on treatments, sprays or collars. By understanding more about fipronil you can take steps like exploring suitable alternatives or finding ways to reduce exposure when necessary.

Chemical properties

Fipronil is an odorless and colorless crystalline solid with a molecular formula of C12H4Cl2F6N4OS. It has a molar mass of 437 g/mol and has a melting point of 120-200 degrees Celsius. The chemical structure consists of a phenyl ring with two chlorine atoms. One fluorine atom and one nitrogen atom attached to it. Additionally, it also contains four oxygen atoms, one sulfur atom and two nitrogen atoms in the side chain.

Stability and decomposition

Fipronil is stable under normal conditions of use and storage. However, it can decompose when heated to high temperatures or when exposed to strong acids or bases. When heated to decomposition, fipronil produces toxic fumes of chlorine and fluorine compounds. It also decomposes slowly in the presence of light and heat and can persist in the environment for several months. Uses of Fipronil

Uses of Fipronil

Fipronil is used as a pesticide, insecticide and termiticide in agriculture, pest control, and flea and tick control for pets.

Pesticide for agriculture

Fipronil is a chemical used as an insecticide, pesticide and termiticide in Australia and around the world. It’s highly effective at controlling pests like aphids, thrips, whiteflies, termites and fleas. In Australia, it’s registered for many agricultural uses such as in cereal crops, cotton, fruit trees, grapes, nuts and vegetables. Additionally, it’s also used to control termites in forestry and protect buildings from infestations. It can also be used for public health pest control solutions.

  • Regent: A liquid insecticide used to control a range of pests in crops such as corn, rice, and soybeans.
  • Adonis: A granular insecticide used to control a range of pests in crops such as cotton, peanuts, and tobacco.

Insecticide for flea and tick control in pets:

Fipronil is widely used as an insecticide to control fleas and ticks on pets. It is often used in spot-on treatments, sprays, and collars that are applied to the skin or fur of pets. In Australia, fipronil is registered for use in flea and tick control products for dogs and cats.

Some examples include:

  • Frontline Plus: A spot-on treatment that is applied to the skin of dogs and cats. It is used to control fleas, ticks, and chewing lice.
  • Bravecto: A chewable tablet to control fleas and ticks. It provides protection for up to 12 weeks against fleas and for up to 8 weeks against ticks.
  • NexGard: A chewable tablet that provides protection for one month against fleas and for up to 8 weeks against ticks.

It is important to note that these products are available only by prescription from a veterinarian. It is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by your veterinarian and to use these products only as directed.

Termiticide for termite control in buildings

Fipronil is an effective termiticide used to protect buildings from termite infestations. It is applied as a liquid treatment to the soil around the foundation of a building, creating a chemical barrier that prevents termites from entering. In Australia, it’s registered for use in buildings, offering reliable protection and prevention against damage caused by termites.

  • Termidor: A liquid termiticide that is applied to the soil around the foundation of a building to control termites. Termidor is known for its high efficacy against a wide range of termite species and its long residual activity. This helps to provide long-term protection against termites. It is also registered for use in the prevention and control of subterranean termites in wood products.
  • Altriset – Altriset is highly effective at controlling a variety of termite species and has a low toxicity profile to non-target beneficial insects. It is also approved for use in areas where food is stored, processed, and prepared. However, like all chemical pesticides, it is important to carefully follow label instructions. Also consider the potential risks to human and environmental health when using Altriset or any pest control product.
  • Surefire – It is a broad-spectrum insecticide that targets termites, ants and other insects. Including fleas, ticks, beetles and roaches. It’s fast-acting and proven as effective in controlling pest infestations indoors and outdoors.


Despite its effectiveness in pest control, the use of fipronil is regulated due to potential risks and concerns it poses to human health and the environment. Fipronil can persist in the environment and affect non-target organisms. These include birds, bees, and aquatic life. As such, government agencies around the world place constraints on its application and usage. These regulations aim to ensure that fipronil is used safely. They help to protect people, animals, and ecosystems from unwanted side effects.

Environmental impacts of Fipronil

Fipronil, as with any insecticide, has the potential to have impacts on the environment. It can affect non-target species like birds and fish, as well as beneficial insects like bees and butterflies. It is also capable of leaching into soil and water sources, leading to contamination of local ecosystems. Fipronil can also bioaccumulate in animal tissues and biomagnify in the food chain, increasing the potential for toxic effects. However, when used correctly, Fipronil is less toxic than many other insecticides and will therefore have a lower environmental impact.

Human health effects of Fipronil

Fipronil is considered to be of low toxicity for humans and other mammals. However, it can cause mild to moderate skin irritation. Acute exposure to Fipronil has been shown to cause headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, confusion, stomach aches and fatigue. Long-term exposure can lead to more severe health effects including liver damage, endocrine disruption and reproductive problems. In severe cases, fipronil exposure can cause seizures and death. Research also suggests that Fipronil could potentially be a carcinogen in humans with prolonged exposure. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified fipronil as a possible carcinogen.  It has also been identified as an endocrine disruptor, meaning that it can interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. There was a recent study conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organsiaiton. According to a 2021 Pesticide residues in food Report, the joint meting concluded that ” the long-term dietary exposure to pesticide residues of fipronil from uses considered by the Meeting may present a public health concern.” The PDF report can be downlaoded here.

Regulations and controversy surrounding Fipronil

Fipronil is registered for use as a pesticide in Australia by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). It is approved for use in a variety of agricultural and non-agricultural settings, including as a termiticide, insecticide, and acaricide. However, its use is restricted to certain crops and pest species and it must be used in accordance with label instructions to minimise potential health risks. As of writing in January 2023, an ongoing assessment is “still in progress”.


Fipronil has been the subject of controversy in some countries due to concerns about its safety and environmental impacts. In 2017, an illegal fipronil-contaminated egg scandal in the EU prompted a recall of millions of eggs and prompted an investigation into the illegal use of fipronil in poultry farms. In addition, fipronil has been banned or restricted in some countries due to concerns about its effects on bees and other non-target insects. Despite these controversies, fipronil is still widely used as a pesticide and insecticide in many countries around the world.

Alternatives to Fipronil

There are alternatives to fipronil that may have lower risks to human and environmental health. These include natural and organic pest control methods, such as using natural predators or implementing cultural practices that reduce pest populations. There are also other chemical pesticides that have a lower toxicity profile and fewer environmental impacts compared to fipronil. Some examples include Bifenthrin, Permethrin and Carbaryl, which are all synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pest control options such as neem oil and spinosad can also be effective. Organic options like kaolin clay, diatomaceous earth and beneficial nematodes may offer an environmentally friendly solution to pest problems.

It is important to carefully consider the risks and benefits of using any pest control method and to follow label instructions when using chemical pesticides.


Is there a risk of drinking water contamination?

Yes. Fipronil is highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in soil and water. This means that it can potentially contaminate sources of drinking water if not used responsibly. Additionally, fipronil has been found to be toxic to aquatic organisms. This can cause further disruption of the natural balance of aquatic ecosystems and may lead to long-term adverse effects on human health.

Can pests become resistant to fipronil?

Yes, pests can become resistant to fipronil. This can happen because of something called “evolution”. Evolution is the process by which living things change and adapt over time, in order to survive. f a pest is exposed to fipronil repeatedly, it may have genetic mutations that make them resistant to the insecticide. These resistant individuals will be more likely to survive and reproduce. Thier offspring will also be resistant to fipronil. As this process repeats over many generations, the proportion of resistant individuals in the pest population will increase. Eventually, the entire population grows resistance.


Fipronil is a widely used chemical as a pesticide and insecticide in agriculture and pest control. While it can be effective at controlling a variety of pests, it is important to carefully consider the potential risks before using it or products that contain it. Fipronil has the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment, including persistence in soil and water, toxic effects on non-target organisms, and the potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. It is also classified as a possible carcinogen and an endocrine disruptor, meaning that it can interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system.

The use of fipronil and other chemical pesticides should not be taken lightly. It is important to consider the risks and benefits of using any pest control method and to follow label instructions when using chemical pesticides. There are also alternatives to fipronil, such as natural and organic pest control methods, that may have lower risks.

As responsible members of the global community, it is our duty to protect ourselves, our families, and the planet from harm.

By carefully considering the impacts of the products we use, we can make informed decisions that benefit everyone. So, let’s make a commitment to protect the health and well-being of ourselves and the world around us.


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